the LL7 Workshop Wall
- Welcome to a collaborative writing space for talking about the May 7-9 Linguistic Landscape 7 workshop at UC Berkeley. if you would like to initiate a question, start a discussion topic, or share a resource with other participants in advance, during, or after the conference, please feel free to utilize this space. A simple registration (name and email) is required so that your contributions can be recognized. Please note that anyone can add to, move, edit, or delete any text here, so please take care with text others have created. Here’s a video on learning to use this tool, Hackpad, and a comparison with Google Docs, in case you’re wondering why we’re trying this. Notice you can add enter new text as main text (just type anywhere) or as a comment that identifies you by name (place your cursor on the page and click the speech bubble icon above).
Here’s a space for your thoughts, questions, comments, resources, etc. related to the workshop, your work on LL, others’ presentations, public resources or whatever you like!
I was really excited to see Rob Troyer’s great Zotero bibliography on linguistic landscape (thanks, Rob! Looking forward to meeting you!) Are there other online compilations of LL readings or resources that anyone’s aware of?
[I just have to say that Rob’s Zotero bib saved my life, like really saved hours and hours of my life inputting citations into Zotero/finding the articles. Thank you, Rob! Can’t wait to meet you and shake your hand!]
So glad the bibliography is helpful. I’ve added several new entries in the last three weeks. Enjoy!
B. Logistical issues
A space for your questions or comments about workshop scheduling, transportation, housing in Berkeley, food, or other logistical issues you’d like to address to the group
I’m not sure whether I’ve made this up, but are there not specific regulations regarding the consumption of bottled water in CA?
II. DURING WORKSHOP
Thursday open space
[erase this text and make new text appear --> your observations, questions, resources, and more from each of the sessions...]
A few links mentioned by Susan Moffat in her plenary talk:
- Global Urban Humanities Initiative at UC Berkeley: http://globalurbanhumanities.berkeley.edu/
- Introduction and background to the Albany Bulb and background readings: http://globalurbanhumanities.berkeley.edu/nature-culture-and-conflict-at-a-shoreline-landfill-the-albany-bulb
- Atlas of the Albany Bulb: http://globalurbanhumanities.berkeley.edu/nature-culture-and-conflict-at-a-shoreline-landfill-the-albany-bulb
And mentioned by Patricia Baquedano-Lopez in her plenary:
Open questions in the session with Barni/Bagna/Machetti, Price, and Amos Thursday morning in Rm. 33: Where are the people in the lingustic landscape? And what is the subject position of the researcher in research? Should there be self-reflexivity on part of researcher? How does this interface with ongoing questions of the unit of analysis in LL research/delineating the object of study?
- BAHIA, Inc., a bilingual environment for gardening and multiple forms of social activity and support in the Bay Area... http://www.bahiainc.com/
How to make art participatory?
Thursday general session: Introducing ROPs
Some questions to consider
- What objects and phenomena should be considered “linguistic landscape,” upon what criteria, and with what considerations? What assumptions underpin your use of the designators “linguistic” and “landscape”?
- What assumptions about the relationship between literacy, writing, and speech underlie your reading and interpretation of LL texts?
- How do you approach, identify, demarcate sites for LL research?
- What methodologies do you find appropriate for investigating the historical (as well as synchronic) dimensions of LL?
- What ethical concerns attend your practices as LL researcher, your relationships with the people, communities, and places in which you work, and the textual representations you produce?
- How does teaching inform and result from your practice as a researcher in/of linguistic landscape?
- What intersections have you become aware of between your work and others, lines of investigation or action you’ve discovered that need further exploration, collaboration or projects you feel might be in the air?
- What are the political implications of your work?
Sign languages in the linguistic landscape? tactility, braile...
Dance in the LL..
subtlety in forms and means of contestation....
methodological diversification to capture different temporalities
Friday open space
I "loved" Adam Jaworski’s reference to C.S. Peirce in his talk this afternoon! I think that discussions on symbols, index, and referents may expand our idea of what a "sign" actually is, how individuals interact with signs and how they shift in interpretation and meaning when they bounce back and forth between the producers and recipients.
Friday Reflections on Practice
Designated note-takers & volunteers for each round of Reflections On Practice: please take notes in the designated areas below. Members of the audience are also welcome to contribute notes on the sessions you’re attending.
B-4 DWINELLE - Teaching and learning in the linguistic landscapeRound 1 (2:45 - 3:50): Maxim, Abraham, Burton & Clark
Facilitators and note-takers: Steve Przymus , Dave Malinowski
Notes on ROP Round 1:
Maxim: "Raising methodological awareness among study abroad participants:
- Foreign language dept. Emory University-Study abroad program in Austria.
- German for these students was not seen as an academic discipline, ...drove one of the goals of this course-use ll to explore methodology with these students
- how to understand the public manifestation of Vienna
- Using linguistic landscape as a way to explore methodology/-ies of literary-cultural studies
- Using LL as ways to enage with multiculturalism, alterity, using Vienna as a point of departure
- Students chose one specific thoroughfare: Questions: What is the role of English, minority discourses, graffiti
- Problems with quantitative analysis, students realized that there were limitations with what they had to deal with, but were able to conduct a quantitative analysis of public manifestation of minority representations of ll
- What could they do that is more qualitative, multimodal
- Diachronic approach with future groups - how to get successive groups of learners visiting/studying in a given place to share the results of their work over time, so that newer ’generations’ can build on the data, observations, findings of the past?
Abraham: "integrating the ll in technology-mediated environments
- project embedded in existing course
- complex methodologies to make the project a learning opportunity and not just take "pretty pictures" and talk about them
- Technology affords students time to reflect (blog-photo in blog becoming discussion in classroom)
- 2nd semester Spanish students finding artifacts (mostly museum art) in NYC
- Pedagogical change in subsequent semester to take the museum piece out of the option for students-team focused on public art
- Reflections on the blog occur in English because it was the language best suited for the task at hand (involving discussing issues of identity, migration, immigration, gentrification, etc.)
- Remaining question of the role/place of the community in the project (e.g., engaging students in/with the community but also making sure the community is being properly represented)
- Scaffold with inquiry based approach framework allowing students to produce the questions? What is their background knowledge regarding immigration, diaspora communities, etc.
- LL of discovery (view the LL as organic-changing over time)
- Tying the L2 classroom to other disciplines and other courses students have taken at Columbia.
- Blogging allows students to draw upon their own cultural, linguistic knowledge
- How to serve student communities coming from institutions where access to the type of (super)diverstity that NYC offers is not there
Burton: "English as a street language: Teaching ESL with the LL"
- American culture in the media course: 3hr sessions (only 3 weeks) 29 students-ESL conversation class focused on fluency
- Research reflects one module embedded in the course
- Students, but also tourists-how to tap into what they are experiencing anyway?
- Explore American culture and multicultural awareness, but not exclusively-monolingual LL also affords valuable conversation topics
- viewed LL photos, shared and discussed in small groups, included LL photos from home countries in one class
- Students took photos, discussed in small groups, reported back to large group
- read article about language access ordinance in San Francisco and Tagalog
- discussed graffiti vs. vandalism
- tourist language v immigrant language; power dimensions
- Interesting contrast from previous two presentation in that the language taught to the students in the class is the language of the country in which the language is spoken (the US)
- students became language investigators-researchers, fresh for students, something different, real lessons based on their current context
- examples shared: landfill (why use landfill? why is this meaningful-great vocabulary lesson)
- another great example: "this restroom is only for people who identify as women"
- "allergic to water need alcohol" as a conversation starter
- advertising v graffiti
- how to scaffold discussions in English with ELLs?
- How to grade LL module of study abroad course?-students wrote a written report posted to website, rubric was provided for students - provide student produced or instructor produced models of rigorous work to help guide students
- resistance from students? Do you get buy-in from students if you want to do a language learning activity based on or in the LL? Do students think they’ll be able to actually learn language?
- frame project as linguistic input, frame LL projects as specific language learning activities if resistance arises?
- Importance of scaffolding the activity when doign it in an L2
- How to incorporate and scaffold interviews as part of their work/studies?
- What neighborhoods do we send students to and how do we direct their gaze-should we direct their gaze? Allowing the methodology to be organic and dynamic, inquiry based-to not limit what students could do and just see what happens-may produce just that, a limitless potential of learning
- A guide (theme, topic,-needed to deal with tension
- Allow students to drive the topics or themes based on what they have already discovered and are interested in
- Start early in the semester and see what transpires
- students need to understand the discourse of the local context to be productive researchers
- What kind of tasks were given to analyze art in NYC?-grammar to report on biographies of artists
- What are students’ relationship to "place"-questions of identity in neighborhoods, issues of authenticity, --> Here’s the Burwell & Lenters article on high school youth in a Calgary suburb doing an LL project investigating identity: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1554480X.2015.1029481
- What did the Spanish language students, researching LL in art in NYC, take away from the project?-Students were left with unanswered questions that motivate them for the future
Round 2 (4:00 - 5:00): Hayashi-Takakura, Callahan, Choi & Lee
- How did you select the places students examined?
- How to have students doing multimodal analyses of the environments they’re in? and focus more on qualitative aspects of their experiences in place?
- How can we reconcile the short duration of such a program with the time constraints of the analytical tools and the objectives of an L2 learning program?
- These presentations pose the questions of framing the methodologies to structure them as a way to ascertain how "useful" they are in the sense of what do students gain or lose by just being "let loose" in the environment to document what they see, especially in the light of Dave’s comment of possibly having the luxury of successive generations/groups of students going back to the same locations.
- How to guide students’ gaze?
Facilitators and note-takers: Jhonni Carr, Will Amos, Dave Malinowski
Asako Hayashi-Takakura: "A sample of teaching Chinese characters (kanji) with linguistic landscape for heritage language learners of Japanese"
- Students learning Chinese (hiragana, katakana, kanji)
- LL of Japan
- Road signs only in Kanji + English translation: easier for students
- Students take photos of LL in Los Angeles
- High SES families can afford a print rich environment: more input/experience with language from start
- Children see repetitions in the LL (e.g. street) which facilitate learning
- How does first language/L1 affect a student’s ability to master another language/L2?
- Semiotic environment is ’constrained’ in LA as compared to Japan
- Motivation/active input more important than passive environment/LL
- Importance of meaningful experiences for students
- Counted number of examples of kanji in LL of LA, compared with LL of Japan
- What particular literacy challenges are posed in environments where Chinese characters are used, when people need to have facility with over 1,000 characters as part of their "basic literacy"?
- Would there be any difference in terms of long-term vocabulary retention between learning a word from a vocabulary list and learning a word from a picture of a sign with that word?
- Written in a decontextualized manner vs. in person/"real life"
Laura Callahan (City College of New York): "Spanish in the linguistic landscape of museums in California and New York: A resource for heritage language learners and students of translation"
- Original study: "Museums as a site for racialization and heritage langue maintenance"
- Large number of heritage speakers--> several courses taught
- Data from 45 museums in Bay area, NYC, LA
- Focusing on written Spanish as a resource for students (L2 learners and HLLs)
- Sometimes Spanish was limited to minimal translations, but sometimes there were extensive descriptions, curator statements, etc
- Status of Spanish in the US, contact phenomena, prestige issues
- Contact phenomena: emphasis on words that it naturally wouldn’t be
- Issues with translations (sometimes machine translated)
- Callahan’s descriptions of the distribution of written Spanish in museums in California and New York as a learning resource for students of Spanish brings to mind activity of ’language mapping’ as a project that students themselves can do--where do you see and hear Spanish being used in certain ’demarcated spaces’ like museums or bus stops (and why is it there?). Reyes Llopis Garcia at Columbia University is doing some neat projects through Twitter that get to this...
- Unit of analysis: the museum vs. the sign vs. on a block
- Connections with service-learning: giving students the opportunity to document translations, volunteer to ameliorate them
- Competition with professional translators: Are we taking their jobs?
- What is a bad translation?
- Grammatically: why are these mistakes made?
- Socially: Mock Spanish (e.g. leaving off tilde) and disrespect of cultures
- We can show the English equivalent
- Will recommends looking at chapter on Bilingual Winks and Bilingual Wordplay http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijsl.2014.2014.issue-228/ijsl-2014-0008/ijsl-2014-0008.xml (patricia lamarre)
Choi (Emory University) & Lee (Georgia State University): "’Seoul Korea, Mexico City, and Takorea.’ Geolocative Linguistic Landscape Project in University Korean Language Classes"
- Handout (2 pgs)
- Korean in Georgia on the rise
- Geolocative language learning, place-based project: students explore their environment
- The student is viewed as an explorer/ethnographer/detective
- Utilize local linguistic and cultural resources: How is Korean used in multilingual contexts?
- Classroom activity: Students identify geolocative points (e.g. markets, beauty supplies, kareoke, etc), create a video, upload shared video to Google Maps, write a reflection paper on process
- Dual application: explore target culture, learn target language
- Authenticity of Korean restaurants in US
- "Difficulty of incorporating all of the ACTFL national standards (five C’s) into the language classroom"
- Application for study abroad and opening students’ maps to a public audience are way to continue these exercises, adapt, develop into the future.
- Interesting that students’ investigation of Korean in stores also puts them in touch with Chinese and Japanese-->potential window of opportunity for multicompetencies. And that other non-English languages can be thought of as "local languages"
- Self-reported results vs test scores
- Student interaction: can make maps public--> share with other students in other countries!
- Ways to expand/deepen student experiences: pre-activities, post activities/ reflecting on activities
- Creating local guides, video tours, with partner classes an idea for future
- The idea of partner classes with paired activities seems to have a lot of traction, some palpable excitement around that.
- As a way to connect with friends/family back home, remember trip (photo journal, but on a map)
- Important questions to ask in classroom:
- Who is being included/excluded from intended audience?
- Who has power?
- What is translated? Why? Power, relationships
- Who is appropriating a culture? <-- how to inculcate a critical approach among students and teachers, a la Shohamy & Waksman (2009) chapter?
33 DWINELLE: Methodologies (I)Round 1 (2:45 - 3:50): Amos, Lyons, Kallen, Dunlevy & Balaeva
Facilitators and note-takers: _____ _____
Erase this text and start typing hereRound 2 (4:00 - 5:00): Dubiner, Adams & Linares, Szabó
Facilitators and note-takers: _____ _____
Erase this text and start typing here
B-37 DWINELLE: Methodologies (II)Round 1 (2:45 - 3:50): Woldemariam, Price, Carr
Facilitators and note-takers: Jhonni Carr
We started by discussing issues and problems we run into. Hirut Woldemariam mentioned safety as a main issue. She told us about an experience with some Ethiopian gangsters who asked why she was "taking pictures of them" and if she was a spy. They also tried to steal her purse. We concluded with a few potential solutions such as the buddy system, being informed of the area to which you are going, knowing the law of the area, and and having a formal letter from your university or written permission from the authorities of the area.
Hirut Woldemariam: "Linguistic landscape as a standing historical testimony: The case of Ethiopia"
Inherent nature of LL Studies: taking pictures: unless you’re doing an analysis online, you have to be present and some places are more dangerous than others
Problems with documenting the LL
- Traveling/Parking/Getting to location
- Safety/Issues with locals: Ethiopian gangsters "why are you taking pictures of us?"
- Suspicions: People thinking you’re taking pictures of them--> "You’re a spy/lawyer!"
- Solution: explain you’re doing research, have a buddy (relative, friend), be aware of the place you’re going, formal letter/permission from authorities and verification, get a good camera (good zoom, quality), know the law, wear a name tag that says doctor/academic title and clothing with school’s name on it, use a clipboard (look like a researcher!)
Susan Price: "One size fits all? Method and madness in the LL"
Next Susan Price lead us in a group analysis of photos. We conducted a bottom-up approach where we simply looked at photos from Albuquerque and discussed possibilities for analysis. Some ideas included looking at the font used (e.g. English referring to Vietnamese, Chinese, French, Spanish restaurants/businesses) and analyzing the handwriting- looking for patterns in how letters are written by people from different countries. We also discussed cultural sensitivity and conducting this sort of research, and making sure we steer clear of stereotypes.
Restaurant and grocery store signs in 9 cities/24 communities
Group analysis of photos
Looking at the font of certain restaurants can be really interesting
- Vietnamese, Mexican, French restaurants seem to have some similar styles
- Languages and dialects: Chicano English
- The font conveys its own message
Analysis of handwriting
Jhonni Carr: "Comparing Koreatowns and beyond"
Round 2 (4:00 - 5:00): Buckingham, Soukup, Leung & Knitter
- Which cities/neighborhoods/areas can we compare? All? Only some?
- What criteria/requirements do we have?
- Demographics: similar populations (total, particular group), measures of superdiversity (cultures, languages)
- Geography: city layout (dense vs. “widespreadness”), geographical features: mountains, valleys
- Economic reasons: Business owners, $
- Culture: schools, cultural centers
- Linguistic: number of speakers
- Historical reasons: “established” communities vs. recent (immigrant) population
- What is the difference between a comparative study and presenting two individual case studies?
Facilitators and note-takers: _____ _____
Being the interpreters of the interpretations, allowing others to interpret can help us to avoid imposing our own single interpretations.
- Variationist perspective on data collection in Vienna.
- Collecting data to feed into perception analysis, a language attitudes study
- Systematize data collection
- Does her best to not impose, to be objective in survey area and analysis
- Language choice is a dialogue between sign writer and sign reader.
- Loanwords and similarities: internet, style, design
- Social meaning: English vs German
B-3 DWINELLE: Framing work in the LL: History, memory, presence, absenceRound 1 (2:45 - 3:50): Blackwood, Garvin, Ritchey
Facilitators and note-takers: _____ _____
- Suppressed memories resurfacing in LL
- Who are the stakeholders? Who is harmed/changed?
- How can LL research feed into memory studies?
Street names and how history can be studied in street names, and the history of street namesRound 2 (4:00 - 5:00): Karlander, Zabrodskaja
Facilitators and note-takers: Linnea Hanell,
Acknowledging the boundaries of our knowledge production. We can’t cover the whole thing. LL privileges languages, which is alright, but sometimes we could be more reflexive of our ontologies. Silverstein’s total linguistic fact is a way of going forward: aim at including form, ideology and practice in all studies. And how does the inclusion of ’space’ change this formula? Does it?
Human geographers discuss the distinction between space/place and landscape. Is landscape something that is ’out there’ or is it something we construct as analysts? Important question to be aware of in the reflexive process of research. Karlander suggests that maybe landscape is more a point of entry than an analytical object.
But what is it then that we are looking at?
All research constructs its object of study, but we can still be reflexive about how we are making this construction.
Throughout the conference, many questions have been posed about ’what’ the linguistic landscape discipline ’is’. Such attempts to delineate a discipline too often seems to involve the use of discipline. There is reason to be cautious about this.
What is language and what does it represent?
Linguistic practice often questions boundaries between languages. Intersections of languages can for example be used to construct creativity. What do we make of that with the legacy of LL in counting separate languages? How can we handle this? Is it necessarily relevant to separate languages even in cases where it’s less problematic?
It might be more meaningful for language users to mesh languages than to not do it.
Saturday open space
Hi, everyone! I missed Elwira Sobkowiak’s talk "Multilingual signs and endangered language revitalization efforts. Presence of written language in public spaces and language attitudes. Case of Nahuatl in Mexico". Can anyone share their notes? :)
Elana Shohamy says maybe we should put our cameras down and rely on our own senses, our own impressions of the sounds and sights. We should be creative in our data collection.
Will we be receiving at check-in a schedule of presentations along with abstracts, or should we print these out ahead of time? Thanks!
Participant contact list (Name, affiliation, email)
- Will Amos
- Monica Barni
- Robert Blackwood
- Mark Kaiser, Berkeley Language Center, email@example.com
- Rick Kern, Berkeley Language Center, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dave Malinowski, Yale Center for Language Study, email@example.com
- Elana Shohamy
- Rob Troyer, Western Oregon University, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Jhonni Carr, University of California Los Angeles, email@example.com
Links to handouts, presentation files, other media or websites from the workshop - please mail to firstname.lastname@example.org